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Table 1 Dimensions of Smite et al.’s taxonomy

From: An extended global software engineering taxonomy

Dimension Categories Description
GSE Sourcing This dimension contains the root of the taxonomy, called sourcing. In this context, sourcing means some form of external software development.
Location Onshore, Offshore A sourcing can be delegated to a site in the same country, i.e. onshore, or to a site in another country, i.e. offshore.
Legal entity Insourcing, Outsourcing Independently from the location, a sourcing can be transfered to a different branch (site) of the company, i.e. insourcing, or subcontracted to a different legal entity (company), i.e. outsourcing.
Geographical distance Close, Distant, Near, Far In onshore projects, the geographical distance is considered: close when it is possible to have relatively frequent face-to-face meetings, since no flights are required to go from one site to the other; distant when at least one flight is required to have face-to-face meetings, which yields time and cost increases. In offshore projects, the geographical distance is considered: near when the required flying time is less than two hours; far when the flying time is longer than two hours and staying overnight is usually required
Temporal distance Similar, Different, Small, Large In onshore projects, the temporal distance is considered: similar when there is a time difference of one hour or less; different when the time difference between two sites is longer than one hour. In offshore projects, the temporal distance is considered: small when there is a time distance between sites of four hours or less; large when there is a time distance between two sites of more than four hours