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Table 3 One of the eleven architectural styles for self-adaptive systems described in the catalog

From: Assessing the benefits of search-based approaches when designing self-adaptive systems: a controlled experiment

Style #2 – P(ID) Feedback control with system identification


A separate component (controller) measures system output and acts accordingly to drive the system to the expected output (feedback)


System, controller, effector, sensor, transducer/QoS subsystem (optional, if output not directly delivered by the system itself)


(Remote) procedure call, event bus or data access

Data elements

Reference value(s), input values, output values, transduced values (optional)


Circular with one entry point: (reference input → controller → system → measured output [ → transducer/QoS subsystem] →...)


#2.1: PID-SI with Precompensation - (PID-SI/PC)


#2.2: PID-SI with Sensor Delay - (PID-SI/SD)


#2.3: PID-SI with Filtering - (PID-SI/F)

Qualities yielded

Reactive behavior; adaptation to unmodeled disturbances; no need for an accurate system model; can make stable an unstable system

Typical uses

When a good enough system model is available, disturbance modeling is quite complicated, target system is unstable but linear or with identifiable linear operating regions


When disturbance spans over a wide range; when system is primary non-linear or have dynamics that are difficult to be modeled; when structural reconfiguration is needed