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Table 1 Example of fault tolerance specification using the guidelines

From: Designing fault-tolerant SOA based on design diversity

Failure mode Fault latency Fault assumption How to tolerate
Delay Permanent Inefficient Algorithm Change the faulty service to another one
   Hardware problem Change the application server
  Transient Server overload Change the application server
  Intermittent Environmental instability Execution in parallel to get the fastest reply
Output Permanent Software bug Use variant services to detect and majority election to tolerate
  Transient Server overload Use variant services to detect and majority election to tolerate
  Intermittent Electromagnetic interference Use variant services to detect and majority election to tolerate
Specification Permanent Malicious service Use variant services to detect and majority
    election to tolerate
  Transient DNS mistake due to environmental instability Use variant services to detect and majority election to tolerate
  Intermittent Unknown cause Use variant services to detect and majority election to tolerate
Server Permanent Hardware failure Change the application to a mirror server
  Transient Memory overload Change the application to a mirror server
  Intermittent Environmental instability Use redundant servers in parallel, and synchronisation algorithms for keeping the consistency among servers
Communication Permanent Breaking the optical fibber cable Change the network link
  Transient Network overload Change the network link
  Intermittent Electromagnetic interference Use redundant communication channel in parallel